Khusrau, another son of Jahangir, was born to this princess. Akbar was an imperialist and desired to bring under his rule as much territory of India as was possible. Revolution against the Rajput by Aurangzeb was one of the major mistakes and … That is why it was the first to feel at Chittor the weight of the Mughal might. Mughal’s Rajput policy vs Afghan policy. The birth of Salim from the Kachhawahi princess in 1569 filled Akbar with a sense of thanksgiving, and drew him closer to the Kachhawaha ruling house. Mughal-Rajput relations were seen as the beginning of a secular, non-sectarian state in which all sections of people would have some interest in its continuation. Humayun, at the approach of his death, advised Akbar that this qaum (the Rajputs) should be reared up because they are not given to transgression and disobedience but only obedience and service. Badayuni, himself a mullah, held an unfavourable view of these sections, calling them time servers and hypocrites. Shahbaz Khan played a prominent role in many expeditions, especially against Rana Pratap, and in Bengal. After the rebellion of the Uzbeks, more Iranis, especially from Khurasan, i.e. He also married two other princesses, one of Jodhpur and other of Jaisalmer. The third phase of Akbar’s relationship with the Rajputs may be dated from 1578 when Raja Bhagwant Das and Man Singh arrived at the Imperial camp at Bhera in western Punjab in preparation for campaigns in the north-west including Kashmir. Thus, Rana Pratap was isolated. During both Humayun and Babur, relation with Rajputs were largely deterred by Afghan problem and friendly relation could not be developed. Mughal pressure was also exerted upon the Afghan chief of Jalor, and the Rajput chiefs of Idar, Sirohi, Banswara, Dungapur and Bundi. Rajputs were not only friends but partners in the Mughal Empire. Akbar period also ushered in an era of personal fidelity. They not only emerged as dependable allies who could be used anywhere for fighting, even against princes of blood, they also began to the employed in tasks of governance. But, policy was governed by multiple forces and situation, e.g. Todar Mal had worked in the revenue-department under Sher Shah Sur. But none of them rose to high positions. The impetuosity of their attack led to the crumbling of the Mughal left and right wings, and put serious pressure on their centre till Mughal reserves, and a rumour of Akbar’s arrival turned the tide. Raja Bihari Mai, his son Bhagwan Dass and grandson Man Singh were among his close confidants. Akbar followed the same feudal policy toward the other Rajput chiefs. In 1562, the pilgrimage tax on Hindus was abolished. The struggle can be regarded at best as an assertion of the principle of local independence. The raja was invited to Delhi after his submission, loaded with presents and not only was his kingdom returned to him, Navsari, a district in Gujarat, was given to him in gift. It was also conscious of its position as the leading state of Rajasthan, and its acknowledged leader. Content Guidelines 2. They were considered more suitable for administrative posts than the Turanis. While these jagirs were transferable like any other jagirs, the Rajput rajas were granted their own homelands as jagirs: these were called watan jagirs. However, his religious views went through a process of slow evolution. In other words, succession was a matter of Imperial grace, rather than right. In a feudalized polity, a personal relationship was considered a better guarantee of loyalty. During the Gujarat insurrection of the Mirzas, Akbar depended largely or Rajputs (Kachawahas) Man Singh and Bhagwant Singh. Though the majority of the Rajput states surrendered to Akbar, the Ranas of Mewar continued to confront even though they were defeated several times. The alliance with Rajputs had become steady and stable. The Turkish rulers were always on the look out to reduce the power and influence of the local rulers (rais) many of whom were Rajputs. (CDS 2008) Jahangir Aurangzeb Shahjahan Akbar (2) The main elements of Akbar’s Rajput policy were the grant of full autonomy and protection to the Rajput states All of the above the establishment of matrimonial alliances with the Rajputs the appointment of Rajput chiefs as Mansabdar and Governors … The Rajput rajas did not raid each other’s territories, or try to resolve territorial disputes by resorting to war. This attitude persisted, though the early Turkish rulers did not demand that the subordinate Hindu rajas establish matrimonial relations with them. Akbar the great... 1. In addition to their holdings in Rajasthan, the Rajputs rajas were accorded jagirs outside Rajasthan in accordance with their mansabs. The first reference to this is contained in a farman of Akbar to Raja Rai Singh of Bikaner. Humayun’s stance as regards Rajasthan was essentially defence oriented: an offensive policy was postponed for a later date. Akbar’s Rajput Policy. It is said when the son-in-low of Rai singh of Bikaner died due to a fall from the palanquin, Akbar himself went there to console the family and share their grief. But he could not recover Chittor itself. The Kachhawahas were not the only ones to whom Akbar showed favour, or who fought on behalf of the Mughal state during this period. Surjan accepted an alliance on the condition that Akbar … Thus, when Rao Maldeo died, Akbar did not accept his nominee, Chandrasen, the younger son, as a ruler of Marwar, but gave it to his elder brother, Rao Ram. He conquered Ranthambhor and Kalinjar – two important Rajput states. Akbar tried to encourage nobles to maintain mixed contingents consisting of ethnic groups like the Mughals, Rajputs etc. Later, on a number of occasions, Bhagwant Das was assigned the responsibility of guarding the Imperial camp, including the royal ladies, a position which was given only to nobles who were related to the ruler, or enjoyed his close confidence. These also did not lead to any kind of special bond between Rajputs and Mughals. During the first phase, which lasted till about 1572, the Rajput rajas who submitted to him were considered loyal allies. His treatment with the Hindus was very tolerant. Nor did Akbar treat such an alliance as a test of loyalty and submission. In fact, it was largely designed to serve the political needs for the empire. The bravery of the Rajputs, the heat, and the fear of ambush in the hills prevented pursuit, and enabled the Rana to retreat into the hills in order to continue the fight. From about 800, Rajput dynasties dominated northern India, and the many petty Rajput kingdoms there were among the main obstacles to the complete Muslim domination of Hindu India. a. He also gave royal sanction to widow remarriage. In the process, Goganda, Udaipur and Kumbhalmir were occupied, forcing the Rana deeper into the mountainous tract of south Mewar. The Rajputs too, had become firm allies and partners in the kingdom. Jahangir established a tradition that the Rana of Mewar would be exempted from personal attendance and service at the Mughal Court, though it was insisted upon that a son or a brother of the Rana would wait upon the Emperor and serve him. The Rajputs were enlisted as soldiers systematically and their salaries were fixed for the first time. The term watan jagir came into vogue only at the end of Akbar’s reign. Daughters of the ruling houses of Bikaner and Jaisalmer were also married to Salim. e.g: they transferred disputed parganas from one to another. Rajput policies adopted by Aurangzeb were strict and stern. Rana Sanga with alliances with Afghan tried to hold back the advance of Babur toward Delhi. The relentless Mughal pressure, the heavy toll of life among the Rajputs, the depopulation of the country and the ruination of agriculture at last produced their effect. Thus, under Akbar, a nobility in which there was a balance between ethnic and religious groups, and an army which was relatively free of narrow clan-tribal loyalties came into being so that they could act as a counter-weight to the others. The only condition Jahangir imposed upon the Rana was that the walls of Chittor fort would never be repaired. Marriages between Rajputs rajas and other Muslim rulers can also be recorded from this time. In 1572, when Akbar left for the Gujarat campaign, Bhara Mal was placed in charge of the capital, Agra, where all the royal ladies were living. Although the Rana continued to wage a valiant, unequal fight against superior Mughal forces which were sent against him, and performed feats of valour under trying circumstances, he was marginalized in Rajput affairs. Akbar’s alliance with the Rajputs began as a political coalition but later, it developed into an instrument of closer relations between Hindus and Muslims which formed the basis for a broad liberal tolerant policy towards all, irrespective of faith. The principalities of Dungarpur, Banswara, etc. Thus by this wise and farsighted policy foes were converted into friends. But these measures did not create an atmosphere of total peace between the Mughals and Rajputs. Negotiations having broken down, all out war between Mewar and the Mughals was inescapable. There are many misconceptions about Akbar’s policy of establishing matrimonial relations with the Rajput rajas. The liberality of Akbar was the primary reason of the success of his Rajput policy. The kingdom of all these rajas were restored to them, and both Kalyan Mal and Rai Singh were admitted to the Imperial service. to 6th Century A.D.), Akbar’s Pragmatic Rajput Policy and its Significance, 10 Reasons for Following the Rajput Policy of Reconciliation of Akbar, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. Controlling succession was not an easy task: it depended on the strength of the Mughal ruler. Between 1575 and 1595, out of a total 184 nobles holding ranks of 500 zat and above: From the time of Akbar an attempt was also made to. He also married two other princesses, one of Jodhpur and other of Jaisalmer. His successor was given a few parganas according to his mansab which was lower than that of his predecessor. Thus, the Rajputs not only emerged as dependable allies who could be used anywhere for fighting, even against princes of blood, they also began to the employed in tasks of governance. They could build temples, worship in them and celebrate their festivals. According to Shaikh Fakhruddin Bhakkari who wrote in the middle of the 17th century: When Humayun was at the court of Shah Tahmasp, the ruler of Iran, the latter enquired from Humayun the causes of Mughal expulsion from India, and which class of people in India constitutes clans and were outstanding and brave. Akbar’s son Salim who came to be known as Jahangir was born from this queen. choosing a successor to the ruler. In another turning point of Akbar's reign, Raja Man Singh I of Amber went with Akbar to meet the Hada leader, Surjan Hada, to effect an alliance. Akbar also tried to forge close relations with the Rajput ruling houses by marriage alliances his prince Salim and Daniyal. The basic purpose of Akbar’s religious policy was universal tolerance. No Mughal expedition was sent against Rana Pratap during this period. There was no tradition, either among the Hindus or the Muslim, of primogeniture, that is, of the eldest son succeeding a deceased ruler. The Rajput rajas were accorded broad autonomy within their own principalities, though they were expected not to levy prohibited taxes, such as rahdari or road tax. In the words of Dr. Beni Prasad. Akbar not only gave complete religious freedom to his wives, … Akbar was able to resolve his relations with almost all the states of Rajasthan with the exception of Mewar. However, in view of exigencies, Mughal and Rajput nobles were allowed to have contingents consisting exclusively of Mughals and Rajputs. Two major Rajput clans remained aloof – the Sisodiyas of Mewar and Hadas of Ranthambore. Areas held by clan member and other clans were brought under the control of the raja, Watan jagirs allowed the rajas to consolidate their position vis-a-vis the pattayats which was. The Mughal pressure on Mewar relaxed after 1579, following rebellion in Bengal and Bihar, and Mirza Hakim’s incursion into the Punjab. The Mughals were also keen to promote the Mughal revenue system of measurement (zabt) to Rajasthan, but here they were less successful. Akbar had soon realized that military power was not enough to ensure the stability of any regime. Akbar tried to promote heterogeneous contingents to cut across the ethic-religious distinctions. In 1585-86, when two sipahsalars or subahdars were appointed to each subah, Rajputs were appointed, as joint-governors of four subahs — Lahore, Kabul, Agra and Ajmer. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. By Jahangir’s time the concept of watan jagir was firmly entrenched. In the first phase (1556-1574), Akbar seems to be in agreement with the Islamic orthodoxy. It was mainly fought in the traditional manner between cavalrymen and elephants, since the Mughals found it difficult to transport any artillery, except light artillery over the rough terrain. A daughter of Kalyan Mal’s brother, Kahan, was married to Akbar. Akbar was the first Mughal emperor who pursued such a policy. Akbar accorded equal status to the Rajput’s. We have Provided The Mughal Empire Class 7 History MCQs Questions with Answers to help students understand the concept very well. His Rajput wives and his […] In 1585, Akbar moved to Lahore, and remained there for the next twelve years, watching the situation in the north-west. ” It symbolized the dawn of a new era in Indian politics, it gave the country a line of remarkable sovereigns, it secured to the four generations of Mughal emperors the services of some of the greatest captains and diplomats that medieval India produced.”. 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